Support People In Ukraine
Ukraine was invaded by Russia in the early morning of 24.02.2022, explosions thundered in Ukrainian cities, many civilians died, tens of millions are affected. Our army protects all Europe from the occupiers and it needs help now to restrain one of the biggest armies in the world. Please, donate a small amount.
I Am
Volodymyr Hudyma
<FrontEndDeveloper />
You Are Here: Home/Return Multiple Elements From Render In React

Return Multiple Elements From Render In React

January 06, 2021

Table Of Contents

    Since v16.0, React allows us to return multiple elements from the render function by wrapping them in an array.

    In previous versions, it was necessary to wrap multiple elements into a single parent, which resulted in an extra node appearing in the DOM tree.

    Return An Array

    To return an array from the render function, you must remember to do the following:

    • Provide a key for each element (Read my previous article to learn everything about keys)
    • Separate returned elements with commas (It is obvious, right?)
    • Wrap all returned strings in quotes

    Let's look at the example:

    // Can you spot what is wrong here?
    const App = () => {
      return [

    ...and a warning is thrown in the console. Do you know why?

    Missing Keys Warning

    You are absolutely right, we forgot to add key attributes, so let's fix that:

    // Yay, we added keys and it works
    const App = () => {
      return [
        <div key={1}>One</div>,
        <div key={2}>Two</div>,
        <div key={3}>Three</div>,
    // Want to return a string?
    const App = () => {
      return [
        <div key={1}>One</div>,
        "Hello World",
        <div key={3}>Three</div>,

    Inspect the DOM tree to make sure all our divs are not enclosed by an extra parent:

    DOM Tree

    And they are not (root is the default div, the React application is attached to).

    Arrays vs. Fragments

    In one of the previous articles I talked about a Fragment that serves exactly the same purpose - allows you to group a list of children without adding extra nodes to the DOM.

    You may be wondering, what is the difference between these two approaches?.

    • Elements returned within a Fragment do not require key attributes
    • Elements returned within a Fragment should not be separated by commas
    • Strings returned within a Fragment do not need to be quoted

    One of the examples above done using Fragment:

    // Return Fragment
    const App = () => {
      return (
          <div key={1}>One</div>
          Hello World
          <div key={3}>Three</div>


    There are two ways to skip adding an extra parent element to your DOM tree if you want to return multiple elements from a single component: You can either return an array or use Fragment.

    These two approaches have minor differences, but there are really no advantages to using one over the other, both do their work perfectly fine, and choosing an appropriate one is a matter of preference.

    Be sure to try them both.

    Receive all new posts directly to your e-mail
    No spam, only quality content twice a week
    Let me know what you think about this article
    Click here to write response...